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Manual "Capacetes": resumo do módulo 1 e referências

Resumo do Módulo 1 e referências.

Resumo


  • O risco de ser ferido ou morto em colisão causada no trânsito é muito maior para usuários de motocicletas do que para motoristas de veículos de quatro rodas.
  • Os usuários de motocicletas compõem alta proporção de traumatismos e mortes causados no trânsito, em geral, particularmente em países de baixa e média renda, onde é alta a propriedade de motocicletas.
  • Traumatismos na cabeça e pescoço são a principal causa de morte, trauma grave e in validez entre usuários de motocicletas e bicicletas. Em alguns países, estima-se que os traumas na cabeça são responsáveis por até 88% dessas mortes.
  • Os capacetes procuram reduzir o risco de traumatismos graves na cabeça e no cérebro reduzindo o impacto de uma força ou colisão na cabeça.
  • O uso correto do capacete diminui consideravelmente o risco e a gravidade de traumatismos na cabeça.
  • Programas que estabelecem e fazem cumprir a legislação obrigatória do uso de capacete são eficazes em aumentar os seus índices de uso e, assim, reduzem o número de traumatismos.
  • Há forte apoio internacional aos programas para uso de capacete.


Referências


1. Peden M et al, eds. World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004 (www.who.int/world-health-day/2004/infomaterials/world_report/en/, accessed 4 July 2006).

2. Koornstra M et al. Sunflower: a comparative study of the development of road safety in Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Leidschendam, SWOV (Institute for Road Safety Research), 2003.

3. Mohan D. Traffic safety and health in Indian cities. Journal of Transport and Infrastructure, 2002, 9:79–94.

4. Traffic Safety Facts. Motorcycle helmet laws . Washington, D.C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2004 (www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/New-fact-sheet03/MotorcycleHelmet. pdf, accessed 4 July 2006).

5. Suriyawongpaisal P, Kanchanusut S. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: trends, selected underlying determinants and status of intervention. Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2003, 10:95–104.

6. Umar R. Helmet initiatives in Malaysia. In: Proceedings of the 2nd World Engineering Congress. Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, Institution of Engineers, July 2002.

7. Zhang J et al. Motorcycle ownership and injury in China. Injury Control & Safety Promotion, 2004, 11:159–163.

8. Motorcycle safety helmets . COST 327. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities, 2001.

9. Blincoe L et al. The economic impact of motor vehicle crashes, 2000. Washington, D.C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2002 (DOT HS-809-446).

10. Kulanthayan S et al. Compliance of proper safety helmet usage in motorcyclists. Medical Journal of

Malaysia, 2000, 55:40–44.

11. Wells S et al. Motorcycle rider conspicuity and crash related injury: case-control study. British Medical

Journal, 2004, 328:857.

12. Brandt M et al. Hospital cost is reduced by motorcycle helmet use. Journal of Trauma, Infection and

Critical Care, 2002, 53:469–471.

13. Liu B et al. Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders. The Cochrane Database of Systematic

Reviews, 2005 (4).

14. Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson R. Helmets for preventing head and facial injuries in bicyclists.

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005 (4).

15. Ivers RQ et al. Motorcycle helmet legislation for preventing injuries in motorcyclists. (Protocol) The

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004 (3).

16. Macpherson A, Spinks A. Bicycle helmet legislation for the prevention of head injuries. (Protocol)

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 (3).

17. Kraus JF, Peek C, Williams A. Compliance with the 1992 California Motorcycle Helmet Use Law.

American Journal of Public Health, 1995;85:96–98.

18. Chiu WT et al. The effect of the Taiwan motorcycle helmet use law on head injuries [Comment

in: American Journal of Public Health 2001;91:1919–1920]. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90:793–796.

19. Servadei F et al. Effect of Italy’s motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Injury Prevention, 2003, 9:257–260.

20. Turner P, Hagelin C. Florida Motorcycle Helmet Use: Observational Survey and Trend Analysis. Florida Department of Transportation, 2004.

21. Weisbuch JB. The prevention of injury from motorcycle use: epidemiologic success, legislative failure. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 1987;19:21-28.

22. Preusser DF, Hedlund JH, Ulmer RG. Evaluation of motorcycle helmet law repeal in Arkansas and Texas. Washington, DC, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2000.

23. Mounce N et al. The reinstated comprehensive motorcycle helmet law in Texas. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety 1992.

24. Fleming NS, Becker ER. The impact of the Texas 1989 motorcycle helmet law on total and headre lated fatalities, severe injuries and overall injuries. Medical Care 1992;30:832-845.

25. Muller A. Florida’s motorcycle helmet law repeal and fatality rates. American Journal of Public Health, 2004;94:556–558.

26. Ulmer RG, Northrup VS. Evaluation of the repeal of the all-rider motorcycle helmet law in Florida. Washington, D.C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2005.

27. Resolution of the World Health Assembly, 57th session, 22 May 2004. Road safety and health, WHA57.10 (2004). (http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_ traffic/ en/index.html, accessed 4 July 2006).

28. Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, 60th session, 1 December 2005. Improving global road safety, A/60/5 (2005) (http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/ publications/ road_traffic/en/index.html, accessed 4 July 2006).

29. Ulmer RG, Preusser DF. Evaluation of the repeal of motorcycle helmet laws in Kentucky and Louisiana. Washington, D.C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2003 (http:// www.nhtsa.dot. gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/kentuky-la03/ accessed 4 July 2006).

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